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《叢林奇航》、《自殺突擊隊:集結》Previs 藝術家分享工作心法與虛擬製作的創作挑戰!

Previs 是現今特效產業不可或缺的一環,而針對 Previs 這個環節又延伸出 Previs / Techvis / Postvis 藝術家等不同職位,負責不同的工作,讓商業特效大片能在最低的成本、最少的時間下完成。映CG 本次採訪韓裔 Layout / Previs 藝術家 Daun Kim,他將與我們解釋這些藝術家工作內容的不同,分享他參與兩部商業電影的過程以及負責 LED 棚虛擬製作會遇到的挑戰。透過專訪,我們將更了解 Previs 的製程與產業分工的生態圈。

We invite Dexter Studios Layout / Previs artist Daun Kim to Share how she created Previs and his work in the two movies "Jungle Cruise" and "The Suicide Squad"


Daun Kim

曾以動畫短片《Don't Croak》獲得 2020 年艾美獎大學電視獎的最佳動畫,然而對攝影的熱愛,帶他走向 Layout / Previs 藝術家的道路。曾在 The Third Floor 擔任 Previs / Postvis 藝術家,參與《汪達與幻視》、《黑寡婦》、《叢林奇航》、《自殺突擊隊:集結》等影視作品,也在皮克斯擔任攝影暨舞台實習生。現為 Layout / Previs / Techvis 藝術家,在 Dexter Studios 負責 LED 棚虛擬製作的工作。

I am a Layout / Previs artist. I worked as the director, writer, and producer for my short film "Don't Croak" which won multiple awards, including the Best Animation Series in College Television Awards 2020. Although I enjoyed working in all aspects of "Don't Croak", I developed a deeper interest in camera and cinematography through this project and it directed my career path to be a layout artist after graduation. I started my first career at "The Third Floor" as a previs artist / shot creator and had amazing opportunities to participate in following projects: Wanda Vision, Black Widow, Jungle Cruise and The Suicide Squad. Working as a Previs artist, although I felt that my basics in cinematography was not strong enough, I was confident with other essential skills such as animating. So I decided to apply for a Camera & Staging internship at Pixar and had an opportunity to learn from amazing artists. Now I am on my new experience as a Previs / Techvis artist working for virtual production projects using LED volume.


聊聊 Previs / Techvis / Postvis 藝術家的日常工作是什麼? 有什麼不同?

What is the difference between Previs / Techvis / Postvis artists?

Daun Kim:作為 Previs 藝術家,主要的任務是創建初始鏡頭中的畫面表現,包含角色姿勢、構圖與運鏡。透過視覺傳遞故事,協助導演將劇本具象化,以利於在製作前可以決定美術方向或角色配置的安排。而 Previs 也能幫助解決拍攝前的所有疑難雜症,節省大量時間與金錢,讓電影製作更為順利。

而 Techvis 藝術家則有點不同,需在前期尋找實際拍攝過程中可能出現的任何問題,並確認 Previs 的鏡頭在技術上可以被執行。因此我們會使用 Maya 、 Unreal Engine 等 3D 軟體,在電腦中創建實景的尺寸,包含鏡頭、道具、配件。模擬實際拍攝的狀況。

在拍攝完綠幕/ 藍幕的場景後,就會交由 Postvis 藝術家,去移除綠幕/藍幕並與 Previs 藝術家製作的場景畫面結合起來,讓團隊在正式進入動畫特效製作前,可以確認電影拍攝的畫面。 

Daun Kim:As a previs artist, my main task is creating shots with strong composition, camera movements and character poses to convey the story clearly through visuals. It helps the director to visualize his/her film and decide various artistic choices in advance. Additionally, any possible issues and concerns can be discussed before the actual shooting and can save a lot of time and money which is very essential in movie productions.

As a techvis artist, I focus on finding any possible issues that may arise during the actual shooting and confirm the approved previs shots that are achievable in the real shoot. We create the set, camera, rigs and accessories in the real size that are to be used in actual shooting using 3d programs such as Maya and Unreal Engine and simulate the filming scenario.

After production, Postvis artists get live action plates usually with the bluescreen or greenscreen with the trackers in the background, and get rid of those blue/greenscreen and combine them with rendered previs environments to quickly review the look of the film before the final vfx. 


在開始創建鏡頭前,Previs / Techvis 藝術家會收到甚麼資料?

Before starting to create shots, what kind of instruction Previs / Techvis Artist will usually receive? 

Daun Kim:Previs 藝術家通常都會先拿到分鏡,並與導演、藝術總監針對不同的鏡頭進行討論,了解該顆鏡頭要傳達怎樣的故事情節、角色情感或表演。假如有其他藝術家在做同一場戲其他鏡頭,就必須了解他在做的事,確保鏡頭的連貫性。

Techvis 藝術家則是會收到某些鏡頭的 Previs 列表 ,因而開始研究拍攝的可能性以及潛在的問題。Techvis 藝術家可以透過許多方式向導演證明可行性,可以繪製草圖、整體成 PPT、製作成俯視圖/透視圖或是以 CG 的方式製作影片。這些圖像或影像也必須傳達許多拍攝必了解的資訊,例如攝影機需要搭載哪些設備一起移動 (例如起重機),或是攝影機距離角色、LED 多近等。 

Daun Kim:Previs artists usually get storyboards first and have conversations regarding the assigned shots with supervisor and lead artists(such as what the story is about, what kind of emotions characters have and the acting choices etc). If there are other artists working on the same sequence, it is important to communicate clearly in order to make sure the continuity is working well.

Techvis artists receive a list of certain shots that the director wants to see if the shots are achievable and what kind of possible issue he/she may confront during the real shoot. Techvis process can be done in various ways. It can be through an image, powerpoint or top/perspective view video that shows some information such as how the camera moves with a crane (or with other rigs), how close to the characters are and how far it is located from the LED. 

身為 Techvis 藝術家,在為 LED 棚虛擬製作創作場景鏡頭時,會遇到甚麼挑戰? 

When you create shots using sequencer in Unreal Engine 4 for Virtual Production projects with LED Volume, what problems and situations are most often encountered?

Daun Kim:在創建鏡頭時,需考慮幾件事,一個是 LED 棚的體積大小,因為體積的大小會限制攝影機的移動以及能捕捉的畫面範圍,畢竟我們不希望拍攝到 LED 棚的頂部或底部,導致需要靠更多CG去修補穿幫畫面,延伸場景。於是在模擬時,經常要問自己:「實際在拍攝時,攝影機需要離 LED 有多遠? 會引起摩爾紋嗎?背景應該要多模糊才能讓場景看起來真實?角色應該要離 LED 多近才有足夠的光線反射?」這些問題是 Techvis 藝術家經常會遇到的基本問題,通通解決後,才能幫助拍攝團隊在實拍時完成與 Previs 相符的畫面。 

Daun Kim:There are several things you need to consider when you create shots for Virtual Production projects with LED. It depends on the size of the LED volume, but it has obviously more limitations on the camera staging and movement than the other projects that are not taking place in LED volume. If you see the top or the bottom edge of the LED set in the camera frame, it is not great as it can cause extra work for the CG extension to get rid of them. When working on shots, I ask myself questions like "how far will the camera be placed from the LED in order to achieve this shot on the actual shooting? Will it cause moire? How blurry should the background be to make the final pixel more believable? How close should the character be placed to the LED to get enough reflections from the screen?". It helps a lot because these are the essential questions for Techvis process in order to make what you created in Previs really happen on the actual shooting 

分享在《叢林奇航》中,面臨最大的挑戰? 

Talk about the sequence you made in "Jungle Cruise" ? the challenge that impresses you the most?

Daun Kim:《叢林奇航》是畢業後、初次參與幕後製作的電影,然而因疫情影響延後上映已久,導致上映時已經比我其他參與的電影還要晚。由於剛畢業,所以有很多技巧需要邊做邊學,例如 Rotoscoping 與鏡頭追蹤,也把當時不太熟悉的 After Effect 摸熟。更棒的是,我遇到許多傑出的同事,從他們身上學到很多事。在《叢林奇航》中所經歷的一切,都成為日後作為 Previs/Postvis 藝術家必備的基礎知識。 

Daun Kim:"Jungle Cruise" was the first movie I participated in. It got released later than other movies I worked on as the release schedule changed due to the pandemic. Since it was my first career project after graduation, there were a lot of things to learn. For example, I had never done rotoscoping and camera tracking before. I was not familiar with After Effect at all at the time. Luckily, I met wonderful teammates and learned a lot from them. My experience with this project taught me all the basics that I needed for the future projects as a previs/postvis artist. 

在《自殺突擊隊:集結》中,你參與了哪場戲的鏡頭設置?

Talk about the sequence you made in "The Suicide Squad"? 

Daun Kim:我參與了「海星計劃」約頓海姆監獄塔倒塌的重頭戲,當時的劇情主要是自殺突擊隊成員潛入監獄中,卻遭遇敵人的襲擊,整棟建築物開始倒塌。在設置這些鏡頭前,我收到在 Maya 中所有角色的動作捕捉數據,這能讓我在在 Maya 的 3D 環境中為角色規劃走位並清理動畫。完成後,就會開始創建鏡頭,在場景內部尋找合適的拍攝位置,並把角色放到攝影機前。通常我會先設計運鏡,再考慮角色的動作。我透過這種方式創建鏡頭,就好像實拍現場的攝影師一般,演員在我面前表演。參與《自殺突擊隊:集結》,讓我對設置鏡頭有了全新的看法。 

Daun Kim:Working on "The Suicide Squad", I participated in the tower collapsing sequence. There are some shots in the sequence where the squad sneaks in and hides inside of the building and then gets attacked by the enemies. For those shots, I received mocap data that needed to be applied to all the characters in Maya scenes. After I applied the data, I positioned characters to the correct location based on the 3d environment in the Maya scene and cleaned up the animation. I started placing cameras after and thought it was an interesting way to create shots. I usually put the camera first where I think it's the right place to be, looking inside of the environment, and place the character in front of the camera. I tend to think about the camera movement first and character animation later. With this way of creating shots, I felt like being a camera operator on the actual set having the actors right in front of me and that kind of gave me a new perspective on creating shots.

你曾在皮克斯擔任攝影暨舞台實習生,聊聊你從這份工作獲得的收穫? 

You used to be a camera & staging intern in Pixar.What knowledge or techniques have you learned in Pixar to help you become a better Previs / Techvis Artist ?

Daun Kim:這是非常難得的經驗,雖然我畢業於動畫學校、創作過動畫短片、甚至作為 Previs 藝術家持續在產業工作,但我一直覺得自己缺法攝影知識,在設置鏡頭、運鏡與舞台佈景時,我一直對我的抉擇感到疑惑。而擔任攝影暨舞台實習生,我參與了為期 12 週的課程,學習關於電影攝影的基礎知識,並透過實戰作業呈現學習成果。這讓我更有信心成為一位 Layout 藝術家。 

Daun Kim:It was such an amazing experience. It was a 12 week program with some lectures on cinematography basics and advanced knowledge. We had several assignments to apply what we learned throughout the program.

Although I graduated from an animation school, created an animated short film and have experiences as a previs artist working in the industry, I always have felt that I am lacking in the basics in cinematography. When I make artistic choices such as lensing, camera movements and staging, it was challenging for me to explain why I made those choices because I just followed my instincts. The internship at Pixar really helped me a lot to fill in those basics that I was lacking in and gave me confidence as a layout artist. 

值日今日,在皮克斯學習的知識,都充分應用在工作上。另外,能在皮克斯認識才華洋溢的動畫師,並成為朋友,也是我人生經歷上最寶貴的一次經驗。
I use all I learned there even to today with my current work.I also got inspired by meeting so many talented artists from diverse backgrounds and made these amazing friends that I still talk to, which is a valuable experience.

by Layout / Previs 藝術家 Daun Kim

你曾在兩家不同特效公司工作,可以分享這兩家公司在職場文化上的差異嗎?

What is the difference in company culture between TTF and Dexter Studios?

Daun Kim:The Third Floor (TTF) 與 Dexter Studios 都是非常有趣的特效公司。TTF 是專門做 Previs 的大型特效公司,擁有許多大型專案製作的經驗,包含漫畫與迪士尼的真人電影。該公司會跟據不同專案組成團隊,每個團隊不僅都有 Previs/Postvis 藝術家,還有資產藝術家與專案協調員。因此 TTF 的分工非常有條理,合作相當緊密,身為 Previs/Postvis 藝術家,我幾乎沒有被要求創建資產或綁定角色,而是能專注設置鏡頭。

至於在 Dexter Studios,我隸屬於虛擬製作部門的預覽工作團隊,雖然團隊規模比不上 TTF,但也有更多機會參與 Previs 製作以及經歷建模、紋理和綁定等流程,提升自己的通才能力。

Daun Kim:I would say both studios are fun places to work. TTF is a company that specializes in visualization. They are much bigger than Dexter Studios and can have experiences with big projects such as live action films from Marvel and Disney. They have many teams based on the projects and there are not only previs / postvis artists but also asset artists and coordinators in each team, which means teamwork and the division of work was very organized. I was barely asked to create assets or rig characters and was able to focus on creating shots as a previs/postvis artist.

On the other hand, Dexter studios has a team called "previs team" in the Virtual Production department and the size of the team is much smaller. People in the team tend to get considered as generalists not specialized in certain skills, which means you can have opportunities to participate not only previs but also in other pipelines such as modeling, texturing and rigging.

談談你最愛的藝術家? 

Share your favorite artist? Why?

Daun Kim:我非常喜歡大衛芬奇,他所執導的電影非常迷人,比如說《控制》、《社群網戰》、《鬥陣俱樂部》、《索命黃道帶》等。在他的電影中,總是能抓緊懸念、表現張力。而這些電影的攝影非常精確且複雜,我經常觀看這些電影,並試圖了解他如何透過構圖與運鏡來表現故事!我也因此收穫良多。 

Daun Kim:I love watching David Fincher's films such as Gone Girl, The Social Network, Fight Club and Zodiac. The suspense and tension is so well achieved in his movies and I always fully get absorbed everytime I watch them. Cinematography in his films is precise and sophisticated. Watching his film and analyzing how he created shots with composition and camera movementhelped me learn a lot. 


圖片由 Daun Kim 提供,文章由映 CG 所有,如需轉載請聯絡我們。  

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